Beneficial role of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes: A review (Manna P and Kalita J)
Nutrition recently published a review paper providing a novel summary of the currently available preclinical and clinical evidences on the effect of Vitamin K supplementation in the management of insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. Out of numerous human studies Vitamin K emerges as an important micronutrient not only due to its well-known function in blood coagulation. It has also been attributed the beneficial role in improving insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis and reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2 D) and metabolic syndrome (MetS).
To that end, the authors proposed a schematic representation of the mechanism underlying these beneficial effects of Vitamin K. Overall, it has been suggested that carboxylation of Vitamin K-dependent protein, regulation of adipokine secretion, anti-inflammatory property, and lipid lowering effect may mediate the beneficial function of Vitamin K in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance .
Based upon the studies included in this review, the authors have observed that intakes of both naturally occurring forms of Vitamin K, Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and Vitamin K2 (menaquinones), are beneficial among a cohort of patients with MetS and a high risk of T2 D. For Vitamin K1 intake, these risk reductions occurred at higher levels of intake; however, in the case of Vitamin K2, the level of intake was low for the same risk reductions. In addition, it has been suggested that Vitamin K2 is more effective in activating extrahepatic Vitamin K-dependent proteins than Vitamin K1. These studies suggested that Vitamin K2 could be more effective than Vitamin K1 in reducing the risk of T2 D.
The authors pointed out that the outcome of their research may help in the understanding and the development of a novel adjuvant therapy to achieve better control of glycaemia and improve the lives of diabetic patients.
Manna, P, Kalita J. Beneficial role of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, and the reduced risk of type 2 diabetes: A review. Nutrition, Volume 32 (2016), Issue 7 , 732 – 739