Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (Geleijnese JM, et al)

The population-based Rotterdam Study examined 4,807 subjects to determine whether dietary intake of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 were related to aortic calcification and coronary heart disease (CHD). Results showed that severe aortic calcification and the relative risk of CHD mortality was reduced with vitamin K2, but not with vitamin K1.

Vitamin K-dependent proteins, including matrix Gla-protein (MGP), have been shown to inhibit vascular calcification. Activation of these proteins via carboxylation depends on the availability of vitamin K.

The population-based Rotterdam Study examined 4,807 subjects to determine whether dietary intake of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 were related to aortic calcification and coronary heart disease (CHD). The analysis included 4,807 subjects with dietary data and no history of myocardial infarction at baseline (1990-1993) who were followed until January 1, 2000. The risk of incident CHD, all-cause mortality, and aortic atherosclerosis was studied in tertiles of energy-adjusted vitamin K intake after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, smoking, diabetes, education, and dietary factors.

The relative risk of CHD mortality was reduced in the mid and upper tertiles of dietary menaquinone (vitamin K2) compared to the lower. Intake of menaquinone was also inversely related to all-cause mortality, and severe aortic calcification. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) intake was not related to any of the outcomes.

In conclusion, researchers reported that the results showed that severe aortic calcification and the relative risk of CHD mortality was reduced with vitamin K2, but not with vitamin K1, suggesting that an adequate intake of K2 could be important for CHD prevention.

Reference: Geleijnse JM, Vermeer C, Grobbee DE, Schurgers LJ, Knapen MH, van der Meer IM, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study. J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-5.

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