Osteoblasts: bone cells responsible for building up bone.
Osteoclasts: bone cells responsible for breaking down bone.
Osteocalcin: a protein found in bone and dentin responsible for regulating osteoclast activity.
Osteoporosis: a disease characterized by brittle, porous bone, caused by osteoclast activity that eclipses the activity of osteoblasts.
Matrix Gla Protein (MGP): a protein that, when activated (carboxylated), helps ensure calcium in the bloodstream is not deposited into arteries.
Arterial Calcification: a state wherein arteries become rigid due to “cement” like layers of years of calcium deposits surrounding the inside of the artery; arterial calcification greatly restricts healthy blood flow to and from the heart.
Menaquinones: isomers characteristic of vitamin K2; the length of the isomer side chains influences the availability to different tissues in the body. Vitamin K1’s isomers are called “phylloquinones.”
Natto: a traditional Japanese breakfast food made with fermented soybeans; natto is the food that contains the richest source of natural vitamin K2.
Fermentation: the act of “aging” a food, allowing healthy bacteria to transform it. Natural vitamin K2 is the byproduct of such a process, which is why certain fermented cheeses are good sources of vitamin K2.
Warfarin: an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body, respectively. This is a vitamin K antagonist, linked to blocking vitamin K and causing deficiencies.